Plenary: Disparate Impacts of COVID-19 - Organizing within Communities and Looking to the Future
She/her/hers | Farmaceutica Presidenta, ABRASITTI
Alícia Krüger is a Brazilian transgender woman. She is a Clinical Pharmacist, holds a Post-Graduate Diploma on STIs, HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and Tuberculosis and a Master’ degree in Public Health (focused on pharmacoepidemiology). She is co-founder and the former president of the Brazilian Professional Association for Transgender Health (BRPATH) – the first transgender woman worldwide to be president of an WPATH affiliated Association. She is also technical advisor of the Paraná State Health Department in Brazill, working on COVID-19 surveillance. She also works as a clinical pharmacist managing PrEP, PEP and other HIV Combination Prevention strategies focused on key populations, especially transgender persons.
Él/Elle – Coordinador de Políticas Públicas de Organizando Trans Diversidades (OTD)
Franco is a trans activist and is a part of the OAS Coalition of LGBTTTI Organizations. He is also the Co-Chair of the Equal Right Coalition, the Trans representative of Latin America for ILGA Mundo – a component of the International Trans Fund. Additionally, Franco is a part of the Latin American Union of Trans Masculinities. He also is a coordinator of Public Policies of OTD Chile, from where he led the advocacy for the current Gender Identity Law.
They, Them, Theirs | Executive Directive, Eastern Caribbean Alliance for Diversity and Equality (ECADE)
Kenita Placide is the Co founder and Executive Director of the Eastern Caribbean Alliance for Diversity and Equality(ECADE). She has advocated around HIV and human rights inclusive of women, youth and LGBTI issues, for over 18 years and has worn many hats to bring attention and funding to the smaller islands in the eastern part of the Caribbean. A runner-up for the LGBT Intergroup’s GO Visible Award in 2012, she is the mind behind the planning and implementing of many Caribbean sub-regional sessions. She led the first presentation by United and Strong to Saint Lucia’s Constitution Reform Commission in 2009 and to the Universal Periodic Review process at the United Nations in 2010. Instrumental in organising the first OECS regional security and human rights training for LGBT and sexual rights defenders in 2011, she made history co-coordinating the Caribbean’s first International Dialogue on Human Rights in 2012 in Saint Lucia. Seeking to remove barriers of patriarchy in LGBT advocacy on a feminist platform, Kenita serves as co-organizer of the first Caribbean Women and Sexual Diversity Conference for the past eight years.
Salma Luevano Luna
She, her, hers, ella | Diputada Federal electa
A congress person in the LXV Legislature of the Chamber of Deputies, Deputies and Deputies in the Mexico government legislature. She is a businesswoman in the restaurant industry, a professional stylist with great recognition in the region, a social activist for human rights and LGBTIQ + for more than 20 years. Salma is also the president and founder of the Association “Juntes por el Camino de la Diversidad” in Aguascalientes and a pioneer in obtaining the first rainbow quotas in Mexico. In addition, she has led strategic litigation that has allowed the inclusion of groups in vulnerable situations in the use and enjoyment of political-electoral rights.
As a result of the aforementioned strategic litigation, Salma Luévano achieved that historically in Mexico the rights of non-binary people are recognized and their inclusion in the Mexican electoral regulatory system.
Dr. Rachel Levine
US Assistant Secretary for Health
Rachel L. Levine, M.D.
Assistant Secretary for Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Dr. Rachel L. Levine serves as the 17th Assistant Secretary for Health for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) where she fights every day to improve the health and well-being of all Americans. She’s working to help our nation overcome the COVID-19 pandemic and build a stronger foundation for a healthier future – one in which every American can attain their full health potential. Dr. Levine’s storied career, first in academic medicine, and as a physician then Pennsylvania’s Physician General and then as Pennsylvania’s Secretary of Health, has focused on the intersection between mental and physical health, often treating children, adolescents, and young adults.
“Democracy without safety - Discussing strategies for combatting political violence”
Alberto de Belaunde
Él | Magister , Ex-Congresista de la República
Former congressman of the Republic of Peru, the second openly LGBTQ elected official in its history. He is currently participating in the Yale World Fellowship at Yale University.
Alejandra Menjívar Guadrón
Ella, She, La, Her – Ex-Candidata a Parlamento Centroamericano
National Secretary for Sexual Diversity and Gender, of the FMLN, former candidate for the Central American Parliament. Graduated with a degree in sociology at the University of El Salvador (UES) and architecture at the José Matías Delgado University (UJMD), graduating from the 2016 class of Victory Institute’s Central American School of LGBT Political Leadership. With training in national and international politics, gender, Human Rights, Gerontology, history of El Salvador, Political Economy, Alejandra graduated and was a spokesperson for the 4th promotion of the Diploma in Government and Public Policies of FUNDAUNGO in 2020. She also has extensive ideological political training and with extensive grassroots territorial work, with a political party career of more than 15 years, she is a signatory and founder of the permanent table of LGBT Human Rights of the Office of the Attorney for the Defense of Human Rights and in 2010 she was a crucial in being an link between the negotiations between civil society and government for the creation of the Directorate of Sexual Diversity in the Secretariat for Social Inclusion. It has been a reference in the Defense of National, Regional and International Human and Political Rights space such as the São Paulo Forum, Foro Albamovimientos, Central American LGBT Human Rights Encounter, the LGBTI Political Leadership Encounters of the Americas and the Caribbean, among others.
Javier Estrada Tobar
El / Ellos / Elles | Periodista
Javier Estrada Tobar is a communications expert and journalist from the University of San Carlos de Guatemala, with more than 15 years of experience in the media and digital communication sector. He has also been an activist, consultant, strategist and advisor for organizations dedicated to the defense of LGBTIQ + rights in Central America.
Ella, She, Her | Co-Deputada Estadual de Pernambuco
Robeyoncé Lima earned a law degree from the Federal University of Parnambuco (UFPe), Brazil. As the first opnely trans lawyer and local elected in the state, she champions inclusive public policies for black people, people with disabilities, people who are LGTBQIA+, and women. She also loves to dance and study languages.
"The Full and Equal Participation of Trans People in the Democratic Process"
Luisa Rebeca Garza Lopez
Ella / She | Maestra, Vocal de Capacitación Electoral, Instituto Nacional Electoral
Luisa is a trans woman with 19 years of experience organizing elections and promoting democratic culture with a trans feminist perspective. She has written about gender violence and electoral political participation of trans * people from 1990 to 2016, the relationship of transparency laws and the erasure of trans * people as well as trans * electoral affirmative actions
Marlon David Pabón Castro
Él | Coordinador del Observatorio de Justicia Electoral de la MOE
Lawyer and candidate for Magister in Law. Marlon held the position of Deputy Coordinator of Electoral Justice and Political Advocacy in the Electoral Observation Mission (MOE) since September 2021. He is the coordinator of the Public Administration and Transparency component of that same organization. He has co-authored various research, public policy and advocacy documents on justice and electoral institutions, political and citizen participation, democracy and elections in transition contexts. From the MOE, it promotes initiatives for the recognition of the political and electoral rights of the LGBT population and coordinates the implementation of the electoral observation approach to guarantee the right to vote of the Trans population.
Tomás Javier Anzola Rodríguez
Él / Elle | Coordinador de Incidencia Política del GAAT
Tomás Anzola a Trans-male activist and a defender of Human Rights of Trans people in Colombia. He is a member and Director of the area of political incidence of the Fundación Grupo de Acción y Apoyo a Personas Trans GAAT. Current, he serves on the Advisory Councilor of the LGBTI Public Policy of Bogotá in the Curul for Trans people. He aims to promote measures that guarantee the right to vote of trans people under equal conditions and free from discrimination in Colombia and in the elaboration of the First Social and Political Agenda for Trans Men in Bogotá.
Activista y periodista
“Political advocacy as a form of participation for the defense of human rights”
Pilar Rojas Salas
Elle/They | Magister en Políticas Públicas Comparadas y servidora pública
Graduate in Comparative Public Policy from FLACSO México and graduate in Marketing and International Business. Her speciality is the design and implementation of public policies with a gender and human rights approach. She has carried out several political advocacy processes related to the rights of LGTBI people, women and Afro-American people. Pilar has been working on the National Elections Jury for 5 years, strengthening the political participation of young, indigenous, Afro-Peruvian, LGTBI, and disabled women.
Plenary: “The year of change - Latin America Edition”
Jeniffer Mella Escobar
Ella | Convencional constituyente de la República de Chile
Jeniffer is a Lesbian-feminist activist, lawyer, conventional constituent for the Coquimbo region. She holds a degree in women and human rights studies, with a focus on families and children. She is a member of the assembly of self-convocation for a new Ovalle-Limarí constitution, and of the Ovalle gender and culture foundation.
Lol Kin Castañeda Badillo
Ella | Diputada Constituyente Ciudad de México
The Constituent Deputy of Mexico City. Lol Kin is a lesbian feminist and a human rights defender. She has promoted equal marriage in Mexico and was involved with the first lesbian marriage in Latin America. She is passionate about highlighting the Constitution of Mexico City in the recognition of self-determination and free development of personality, identity, families, right to a life free of violence, rights to LGBTTTI people, equal marriage, cohabitation, sexual rights, reproductive rights. She also works on a number of cases involving families, identity, widowhood, social security, work and education throughout the country.
Luis Carlos Leal Angarita
Él | Concejal de Bogotá
A doctor specializing in General Surgery from the National University of Colombia. Luis is the former President of the National Association of Interns and Residents -Anir- Councilor of Bogotá 2020-2023
He/Him | UN Independent Expert on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Victor Madrigal-Borloz, a Costa Rican jurist, is a senior visiting researcher at the Harvard Law School’s Human Rights Program. He serves as the UN Independent Expert on Protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity since January 2018. In 2020, his tenure was renewed by the Human Rights Council for another three-year period.
“Best Practices for Creating LGBTI Inclusive Policies”
Equipos de las Direcciones de Diversidad Sexual y Políticas Sectoriales de la Secretaría Distrital de Planeación
Ellos/ellas They/them – Equipo profesional interdisciplinario
The teams of the Directorate of Sexual Diversity, as in charge of coordinating public policy for the full guarantee of the rights of people from the LGBTI social sectors of Bogotá, and of the Directorate of Sector Policies, in charge of the design, monitoring and evaluation of the economic and development policies, contribute from different knowledge to the construction of an inclusive city.
"Developing a diagnostic tool for Political Parties on LGBTI matters”
Él / He | Experto en gobernanza, género y derechos humanos
Luis has more than 12 years of experience working on issues of human rights, democracy, gender, and LGBTQI populations in various parts of the world, with an emphasis on the Americas. He currently works as Senior Program Manager at the America Bar Association – Rule of Law Initiative. He previously led the international program at the LGBTQ Victory Institute for 9 years.
“Estrategia de visibilidad, vocería publica y comunicación política”
Alejandra Parra Cárdenas
Ella | Socio fundadora, Consultora Momento
A political scientist with experience in electoral campaigns, legislative mandates and advocacy strategies. Co-founder of Wikipolítica in Mexico in 2012 and the general coordinator of the movement’s campaigns in 2015 and 2018. She has campaigned and given workshops in more than 7 Latin American countries.
She is a leader of political training projects at Instituto Update, an organization that studies and promotes political innovation in Latin America and is a founding partner and consultant of Momento, a strategy agency for causes.
Armando Estrada Leyva
Maestro | Socio fundador, Consultora Momento
Armando graduated with degrees in International Relations and a Master’s in Public Policy with professional experience in civil society organizations and the design and implementation of electoral campaigns in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and Spain.
Mauricio Andrés Toro Orjuela
Él | Miembro de la Cámara de Representantes
Mauricio Toro Orjuela is a political scientist from the Javeriana University, a specialist in innovation and business development from the Externado University, with a Master’s in Business Administration from the ISEAD Business School, associated with the Complutense University of Madrid. He has been a university professor, Director of Mindset and Culture of Innovation and General Manager of iNNpulsa Colombia, a state entity dedicated to promoting entrepreneurship, business competitiveness and innovation.
He is motivated by his passion for entrepreneurship, and has created multiple consulting and technology companies. He was winner of the Innovation Award in Product Development in 2011 at Global Entrepreneurship Week, and selected by the International Junior Chamber in 2016 as one of the 10 outstanding young people in Colombia. In 2019 he was chosen as one of the 10 best Representatives to the House, by the Opinion Panel. In 2018 he came to the House of Representatives with the agenda of “it is our turn as citizens to become the politicians.” His work as a congressman has focused on economic issues such as the defense of entrepreneurs and MSMEs and on issues of technology, education and innovation. He is the author of the “Fair Term Payment” Law and other initiatives that are underway in the Congress of the Republic such as: regulation of Transportation Platforms, protection of Digital Work, benefits for ICETEX debtors, crypto assets, fire prevention Forestry, regulation of Nicotine, Electronic Cigarettes and Vapers and Labeling of Ultra-processed Groceries.
Plenary: "Reenvisioning democracy to safeguard equality"
She/her/hers | Minneapolis City Council Vice President
Andrea Jenkins, is currently the Vice President of the Minneapolis City Council. She is a poet, artist, writer, activist and educator.
Enrique Torre Molina
Él / He / Him | Activista y consultor de comunidad LGBTQ+
Mr. Molina is an activist and international consultant on LGBTQ + community issues, communication and inclusion for the private and public sectors. He co-founded the Colmena 41 organization, is an assembly member of the Council to Prevent and Eliminate Discrimination in CDMX, creator of the Mafia Gay podcast and collaborates with media such as the opinion section of The Washington Post.
Él | Director Ejecutivo, Instituto de Políticas Públicas LGBT+
The Executive Director of the LGBT Public Policy Institute and is the Secretary of Foreign Relations of the Socialist Party of Argentina.
Ludwika Vega Espinoza
Ella | Presidenta, Asociación Nicaragüense de Transgéneras (ANIT)
Ludwika Vega Espinoza is transgender woman and President of the Association Nicaraguan of Transgender (ANIT) which is based in Managua, Nicaragua. The objective is to focus on advocating nationally for trans rights issues, along with sexuality, and violence, working on the construction of gender identity in partnerships with other NGO. The group also facilitates the empowerment of the trans population through to the training of their members, which helps improve self – esteem and proposing public policy benefits of the trans population rights as an activist for 20 years.
Plenary: “Lessons learned from local governments during the COVID 19 pandemic”
Cássio Rodrigo de Oliveira Silva
Él (he/his) | Coordinador de Políticas Públicas LGBTI de São Paulo
Cássio Rodrigo is a journalist, formed by PUC-SP, LGBTI + activist, was LGBTI + Municipal Coordinator between 2005 and 2006 and State Coordinator of Policies for Sexual Diversity for the São Paulo local government from 2016 to 2018. He’s currently the LGBTI + Municipal Coordinator, part of the Municipal Secretary of Human Rights and Citizenship, of the City of São Paulo.
Él – Director de Diversidad en la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá
David Alonzo is currently the Director of Diversity in the Mayor’s Office of Bogotá. He’s also a Political scientist, communicator and expert in Urban Planning.
Ivan Chanis Barahona
Él | Presidente de Fundación Iguales Panamá
Iván Chanis Barahona, is studying for a master’s degree in public policy (MPP) at the University of Oxford. He has an LL.M. (Master of Laws) from New York University (NYU) and graduated Magna Cum Laude. He is also the President and founder of Fundación Iguales Panamá.
Michelle Vargas Lobo
Ella | Candidata al concejo de Rosario
Michelle is a trans person who was born in the southern region of Argentina. Since 2003, Michelle has lived in Rosario, a province of Santa Fe. She was a sex worker until 2014 and currently pursuing a Nursing Degree. She is also a political activist in her community advocating for equality and trans rights.
Él | Director de la Secretaría de Diversidad de la Intendencia de Montevideo
A filmmaker with a BA in Philosophy and Communications, Sergio is an LGBTIQ + activist, director of FriendlyMap Magazine. He is also the founder and vice president of the LGBT Chamber of Commerce and Business of Uruguay, and a member of the National Council for Sexual Diversity, Director of the LGBT Tourism Board of the Montevideo Tourist Association.
Ella/She | Profesora, Política y Dirigente Social
María Rachid is Head of the Institute against Discrimination of the Ombudsman’s Office of the City of Buenos Aires. She is a member of the Board of Directors of the Argentine LGBT + Federation and is a Professor at the Faculty of Journalism and Social Communication of the National University of La Plata. Today she is a candidate for national deputy for the Frente de Todes in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. She is the author of the Antidiscrimination Law of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and one of the authors of the Equal Marriage Law and the Gender Identity Law, in addition to many laws that are currently being debated in the Congress of the Argentine Nation, such as the project for a new National Anti-Discrimination Law and the Comprehensive Trans Law. She is an activist for the rights of LGBT + people since the 90s. She was one of the founders, in 1998, of one of the most representative organizations of LGBT + militancy in Argentina, La Fulana, a space for lesbian and bisexual women that, with other organizations founded the Argentine LGBT + Federation in 2005, where she was elected as the first President. She was also President of the National Board for Equality and Against Discrimination.
In 2010, she was declared “Person of the Year” by the magazine of the Spanish newspaper El País, for her role in the campaign for the right to equal marriage in Argentina, and “Outstanding Personality in the Fight for Human Rights” – unanimously – by the Legislature of the City of Buenos Aires.
In 2020, together with Victoria Donda Pérez and Mariana Gras -in addition to different militants from the country-, they created Identidad, a national, popular, feminist and federal party, with full participation in the Frente de Todos and in the Government of Alberto Fernández and Cristina Fernández.
Diputado en el Congreso
Activist and Human Rights defender with a background in organizations focused on sexual diversity, youth, indigenous peoples and social movements. Elected as Congressman for the period 2020-2024 in Guatemala, and at 43, he became the first openly gay man elected as that position in the history of Guatemala and in Central America. His experience with social movements, includes fighting for the rights of vulnerable populations, mapping of key political actors, and monitoring government organizations such as PNC, MP, PDH, among others.
Alhelí Partida Rodríguez
She / Ella | Directora de los Programas Internacionales , LGBTQ Victory Institute
Alhelí is the Director of International Programs at Victory Institute and has a background in being an international lawyer with experience in the Inter-American Human Rights System. In recent years, she has collaborated with different international organizations to fight against Human Rights violations through strategic litigation and other jurisdictional tools. In Mexico, Alhelí also served as a legal consultant on gender issues and as a legal advisor in the local Congress of Jalisco. She has a Master’s degree in International Law and International Organizations from the Sorbonne University in Paris, France.
Pasante carrera de Gerencia y Desarrollo Social
Master en Gerencia de Proyectos
Ces Badillo Gutiérrez
Coordinador del área de incidencia sociopolítica, Caribe Afirmativo
Cristian Rodríguez de Leon
Coordinador de Legal y Cabildeo, Colectivo República Dominicana es de Todes
Asesor de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades, PROMSEX
Peruvian sociologist from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. David is an advisor at the Center for the Promotion and Defense of Sexual and Reproductive Rights – Promsex. He has a specialty in Public Policies for Equality (CLACSO-FLACSO). He is currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Political Studies at L’École Des Hautes Études En Sciences Sociales (EHESS-Paris).
Coordinadora de la Asociación LGTBI Arcoíris de Honduras
Deputado distrital do Distrito Federal
Fábio Felix is the 1st LGBTI and black state elgislator in the Federal District Legislative Chamber, he was elected in 2018 with 10,955 votes. Throughout his career, he was involved in the student movement and in various struggles to build a world through collective construction. He is a social worker, LGBTI activist, servant of the socio-educational system, professor and obtained his doctorate in Political Science at the University of Brasília.
Director Financiero, PROMSEX
Gerente Comunicaciones, Centro para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación LGTBI -SOMOS CDC-
Director General, Yaaj México
Iván Chanis Barahona, is studying for a master’s degree in public policy (MPP) at the University of Oxford. He has an LL.M. (Master of Laws) from New York University (NYU) and graduated Magna Cum Laude. He is also the President and founder of Fundación Iguales Panamá.
Abogada, Caribe Afirmativo
Gerente Programa Participación Política e Incidencia, Centro para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación LGTBI -SOMOS CDC-
Luis Alberto Gómez
Asesor en Seguridad para procesos sociales y de derechos humanos
Profesional de apoyo del área de incidencia sociopolítica, Caribe Afirmativo
Marlon holds a high level of experience in social research on topics such as: Colombian armed conflict, construction of historical memory, territorial planning, access to water and basic sanitation in rural communities of the Montes de María, territorial peace and rights of LGBTIQ + people. He also has experience in the field of audiovisual production.
Mateo de la Torre
Manager de Programas Internacionales, LGBTQ Victory Institute
Mateo de la Torre (he / him) is an abolitionist transgender Latino from Tijuana, Mexico, and currently serves as the International Programs Manager at Victory. His work has focused on issues impacting transgender people of color and those with low-to-no income including sex worker’s rights, policing, and conditions of confinement in prisons and detention centers. Mateo has most recently served as Director of Policy and Advocacy at Black and Pink where he managed the National LGBTQ / HIV Criminal Justice Working Group, and as Racial and Economic Justice Policy Advocate at the National Center for Transgender Equality. Throughout his advocacy he has organized national lobby days, published reports on TGNC interactions with law enforcement, co-drafted the first federal bill focused on the health and safety of sex workers, and headed up Latinx outreach and engagement for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services during the Obama Administration.
Mayor Anisse Parker
President and CEO, LGBTQ Victory Institute
Victory Fund and Victory Institute President & CEO Annise Parker is the first former elected official to lead the organizations, having served six years as a Houston City Council member, six years as City Controller, and six years as Mayor of the city. She is one of only two women to have been elected mayor, and is the only person in Houston history to have held the offices of council member, controller and mayor. She was the first openly LGBTQ mayor of a major American city.
Edilesa de Teusaquillo
Asistente de Programas, Centro para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación LGTBI -SOMOS CDC-
Coordinadora de Mujeres Diversas, Yaaj México
Executive Director, LGBTQ Victory Institute
Ruben J. Gonzales is the Executive Director of LGBTQ Victory Institute, which is dedicated to achieving full equality for LGBTI people by building, supporting and advancing a diverse network of LGBTQ public leaders. Ruben oversees all operations and programs for the organization.
Prior to joining Victory in March of 2016, Ruben served as the Vice President of Philanthropy at the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute (CHCI). Ruben also previously served as the Chief Development Officer at the United Cerebral Palsy (UCP), Deputy Vice President for Resource Development at the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), Director of Development at the Urban Assembly, a school management organization based in New York City, and with the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) as Director of Volunteer Management.
Congresista de la República
Congresswoman of the Republic of Peru, lawyer, auditor, activist, actress. Champion of public policy that workis in service of citizens, of our community, and of the collective interest of creating a more just, free and equal society.
Diputada a la Asamblea Nacional
Lawyer graduated summa cum laude from the Andrés Bello Catholic University (Caracas), with a Doctorate in Commercial Law from the Paris 2 University (France). She has also studied at the Institute of Comparative Law in Paris, and at the Harvard Kennedy School. Former Professor of Law at the Andrés Bello Catholic University, at the Central University of Venezuela, and at the Metropolitan University. She is the author of books and articles on civil, commercial, and human rights law, particularly as they relate to LGBTI issues. She is a national and international activist. She is co-chair of the IDAHOBIT-May 17 World Committee and GATE Global Action for Trans Equality. Member of the Board of Directors of AllOut, ICASSO, Plafam, and Unesco Chair of Sexuality and Human Rights.
Tatiana Piñeros Laverde
Alcaldesa local de Los Mártires
I was born and raised in the north of Mexico City. I am 31 years old, I studied film professionally and, for three years, in 2018, I had the honor of being a local representative in the Congress of Mexico City. I started my public career in 2016, defending the causes of energy sovereignty and human rights, above all, of the people of the LGBTTTI + community. Since then I have been able to fight for the causes of equal marriage, gender identity protections for transgender people and, already as a congressman, the prohibition of ECOSIGs, also known as conversion therapies, and the rights of other priority groups such as women, indigenous people, people with disabilities, the elderly, young people, and people living with HIV. Also, I was the first State Secretary for Sexual Diversity within my party, MORENA, in Mexico City, and one of the first secretaries of Sexual Diversity of MORENA at the national level.
Director, Caribe Afirmativo